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Keratoplasty - Cornea Transplant Surgery - Keratoplasty - Cornea Transplant Surgery

Keratoplasty - Cornea Transplant Surgery 

A cornea transplant surgery (keratoplasty) is a surgical procedure to change a part of your cornea with corneal tissue from a donor. Your cornea is the transparent, dome-shaped surface of your eye. It's where light enters your eye and may be a large part of your eye's ability to ascertain clearly.

A cornea transplant surgery can get vision back, reduce pain, and improve the looks of a damaged or diseased cornea. Most cornea transplant procedures are successful. But cornea transplant surgery carries little risk of complications, like rejection of the donor cornea.

Why is the Cornea replacement or cornea transplant surgery done?

There are several conditions are often treated with a cornea transplant surgery, including:

  1. A cornea that bulges outward (keratoconus)
  2. Fuchs' dystrophy, a genetic disease 
  3. Thinning or tearing of the cornea
  4. Cornea scarring, caused by infection or injury
  5. Swelling of the cornea
  6. Corneal ulcers not responding to medical treatment
  7. Complications caused by previous eye surgery

Risks of cornea transplant surgery ( keratoplasty )

Cornea transplant / Cornea operation is comparatively safe. Still, it does carry small risk of complications, such as:

  1. Eye infection
  2. Pressure increase within the eyeball (glaucoma)
  3. Problems with the stitches wont to safe the donor cornea
  4. Rejection of the donor cornea
  5. Bleeding
  6. Retinal issue, like detachment of the retina or swelling

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Signs and symptoms of cornea rejection

Your body's system can erroneously attack the donor cornea. This is often called rejection, and it'd require medical treatment or another cornea transplant. Make an important appointment with your ophthalmologist / eye doctor if you notice signs and symptoms of rejection, such as:

  1. Loss of vision
  2. Eye pain
  3. Red eyes
  4. Sensitivity to light
  5. Rejection chance in about 10 percent of cornea replacement.

How you prepare for corneal transplant surgery or cornea replacement (keratoplasty)

Before cornea transplant surgery, you'll undergo:

A thorough eye exam. Your ophthalmologist looks for conditions which may cause complications after surgery. Measurements of your eye. Your ophthalmologist/eye doctor determines what size donor cornea you would like. A review of all medicines  and supplements you are taking . you'll have to stop taking certain medicines or supplements before or after your cornea transplant.
Treatment for other eye problems. Unrelated eye issues, like infection or inflammation, can reduce your chances of a successful cornea transplant surgery. Your ophthalmologist/eye doctor will treat those problems before your surgery.

Procedures to transplant a part of the cornea

A cornea transplant surgery removes either the whole thickness or partial thickness of the infected cornea and replaces it with healthy donor tissue. Your cornea transplant surgeon will decide which method to use. These sorts of procedures include:

Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) a full thickness­­ cornea transplant/replacement. Your cornea surgeon expert cuts through the whole thickness of the abnormal or diseased cornea to get rid of a little button-sized disk of corneal tissue. A unique instrument is employed to form this accurate circular cut.

The donor cornea, move fit, is placed within the opening. Your doctor  then uses stitches (sutures) to stitch the new cornea into place. The stitches could be removed at a later visit together with your cornea surgeon expert.

Endothelial keratoplasty (EK). These methods remove infected tissue from the rear corneal layers, including the endothelium and a skinny layer of tissue that protects the endothelium from injury and infection (Descemet membrane). Donor tissue replaces the removed tissue.

There are two sorts of endothelial keratoplasty. The primary type, called Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK), uses donor tissue to change about 1/3 of the cornea.

Anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK). Two different methods remove infected tissue from the front corneal layers, including the epithelium and therefore the stroma, but leave the rear endothelial layer in situ .

The depth of cornea damage determines the sort of ALK method that's right for you. Superficial anterior lamellar keratoplasty (SALK) changes only the front layers of your cornea, leaving the healthy stroma and endothelium intact. A deep anterior lamellar transplant (DALK) method is employed when cornea damage extends deeper into the stroma of the eye. Healthy tissue from a donor is then attached (grafted) to change the removed portion.

The second type, also known as Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK), uses a way thinner layer of donor tissue. The tissue utilized in DMEK is very thin and fragile. This method is tougher than DSEK and is usually used.

Artificial cornea transplant (keratoprosthesis). In some cases, if people aren't qualified for a cornea transplant from a donor cornea, they could receive a man-made cornea (keratoprosthesis)/ artificial cornea transplant. Your surgeon will discuss which type of keratoplasty surgery is best for you.

During the procedure of Cornea transplant/replacement surgery

On the day of your cornea transplant, you'll either tend a sedative to assist you relax and an area anesthetic to numb your eye, or you will be put to sleep. Either way, you should not feel pain.

Surgery is finished on one eye at a time. The quantity of your time spent in surgery is different and depends on your situation.

After the procedure of Cornea transplant/replacement surgery

Once your cornea transplant is completed:

  1. Receive medications. Eye Drops and, sometimes, oral medications immediately after cornea transplant and through recovery will help control infection, swelling and pain. Eye Drops to suppress the system help prevent cornea rejections.
  2. Wear eye protection. Eye shields or glasses protect your eye because it heals.
  3. Lie on your back. counting on the sort of transplant, you would possibly need to do that for a short time after surgery to assist the new tissue stay in situ 
  4. Avoid injury. After your cornea transplant, do slowly work your high to your normal activities, including exercise. Don't rub or continue your eye. For the balance of your life, you will need to require extra precautions to avoid harming your eye.
  5. Return for frequent follow-up exams. Expect to ascertain your cornea surgoen expect regularly within the year after surgery to watch your progress and appearance for complications.